This is due not only to the number of parameters and attributes you can modify for the protocol, but also to the sheer size of the routing table(s) you could deal with! This final chapter of BGP focuses on four ways of optimizing BGP operation when dealing with these enormous routing tables:
* Reducing BGP convergence time
* Limiting the number of BGP prefixes from a neighbor
* Using BGP peer groups
* Configuring route dampening
Reducing BGP Convergence Time
The creators of the BGP routing protocol designed it for slow convergence. Although this seems illogical, it becomes clear when you realize the sheer size of a BGP network. If BGP propagated routes quickly, a single, flapping network could cause an instant worldwide routing table recalculation. Considering the number of flapping routes that exist on a daily basis, this would be disastrous.
Using a variety of BGP configuration commands, you are able to lower the convergence time of BGP. If you are dealing with Internet-sized routing tables, Cisco recommends that you do NOT adjust the following timers. However, if you are using BGP to manage an enterprise-sized routing table, modifying the following timers can increase network performance and convergence time.
There are two timers you can adjust to lower the convergence time of BGP: the scanner interval and the hello interval.
The scanner interval is how often the BGP routing process “walks through” the BGP routing table and ensures all routes are still reachable. By default, this occurs once every 60 seconds. By lowering this interval you allow BGP to modify the table more quickly in the event that a next-hop address becomes unreachable. Keep in mind that decreasing this interval does adversely affect your router CPU load. Use the following syntax to modify the scanner interval:
Router(config-router)# bgp scan-time seconds
The hello interval is how often BGP sends a hello message to a neighboring router. By default, BGP sends hello messages every 30 seconds for EBGP neighbors and every 5 seconds for IBGP neighbors. By decreasing this interval, the BGP routing process can detect a disconnected neighbor sooner resulting in faster convergence. Use the following syntax to modify the hello interval:
Router(config-router)# neighbor ip_address advertisement-interval seconds
Limiting the number of BGP prefixes from a neighbor
This feature allows you to limit the number of route advertisements you receive from a particular neighbor. This is necessary to protect yourself from a misconfigured neighbor who could send multiple copies of the Internet routing table to your router. This would quickly result in a memory overflow and potentially cause the router to crash. Use the following syntax to limit the number of prefixes you can receive from a neighbor:
Router(config-router)# neighbor ip_address maximum-prefix number_of_prefixes [threshold] [warning-only] [restart minutes]
Following is a description of the optional arguments for the maximum-prefix syntax:
threshold – This is a number from 0-100 representing a percentage. When a router reaches this percentage of prefixes (in relation to the maximum number of prefixes), it will begin generating warning messages.
warning-only – This causes the BGP router process to ONLY send warning messages when the neighbor exceeds the maximum number of prefixes. The default behavior is to drop the neighbor connection.
restart minutes – This instructs the router to try to re-establish the session after the specified interval in minutes
Using BGP peer groups
BGP peer groups are primarily designed to ease BGP neighbor configuration. However, peer groups also provide a slight performance boost. Peer groups allow you to group common neighbor parameters under a peer group name. This is useful if you have many BGP neighbors with similar parameters. You can then assign all the neighbors to a common peer group rather than assigning all the neighbor parameters individually. The syntax to create a peer group is as follows:
Peer group creation
Router(config-router)# neighbor peer_group_name peer-group
Router(config-router)# neighbor peer_group_name (assign parameters to the peer group such as remote-as, route-map, filter-list, etc…)
Assigning peer groups
Router(config-router)# neighbor ip_address peer_group_name
Configuring Route Dampening
Because the Internet is such a large entity, the probability for routing table changes is extremely high. At any given time of day or night, there are routes being added and removed from the BGP routing table. When a router connected to the Internet is failing, a common symptom is the connection going up and dropping continuously. Administrators commonly refer to this as route flapping. Uninhibited route flapping can cause constant, worldwide BGP routing table changes, thus decreasing Internet performance.
Route dampening is a method that allows a service provider to detect flapping routes and suppress them. This keeps a route that could potentially flap for hours or even days from propagating across the Internet. The architecture of route dampening is fairly easy to understand. When a route flaps (goes down and back up), the service provider assigns that route a penalty. After a route has been assigned too many penalties, the service provider suppresses the route and no longer advertises it for a certain amount of time.
Before you can understand the configuration of route dampening, you must understand the terminology:
Suppress Limit – The penalty limit at which a route is suppressed. Once a route reaches this limit, it is no longer advertised.
Reuse Limit – The point at which the route is re-advertised to the Internet. Once the penalty assigned to a route reaches this amount, the service provider will re-advertise the route. (in addition, service provider erases all penalties assigned to a route once the penalty drops below half of the reuse limit)
Maximum Suppress Limit – The maximum amount of time the service provider will suppress a route.
Now that you understand the foundation terms, here is the syntax to configure route dampening:
Router(config-router)# bgp dampening [half-life reuse suppress max-suppress-time]
half-life – How long before the service provider reduces the penalty of a route by half
reuse – The penalty value at which a route is reused
suppress – The penalty value at which a route is suppressed
max-suppress-time – The maximum amount of time a route can be suppressed